AMR occurs when germs like bacteria, viruses and fungi evolve in ways that make the medicines used to treat them stop working. These germs can then cause resistant infections that can be difficult and sometimes impossible to treat.1

By 2050, it is estimated AMR will cause more deaths than cancer unless concerted efforts are undertaken to counter its progression. 3

Proactive Infection Prevention

Improved hospital-based infection control, hygiene, and sanitation can prevent infections and reduce the use of antibiotics. This can include the wider implementation of infection control units in hospitals to minimize the risk of infectious disease outbreaks within the hospital. Achieving higher vaccination rates can reduce the incidence of infectious diseases, which in turn decreases the unnecessary use of antibiotics and slows the development of AMR.5


Antibiotics are too often used inappropriately, such as for treating viral infections. Better understanding is needed among healthcare providers and patients on the proper use of antimicrobials to ensure they are used only when relevant, at the appropriate dose, and for the right amount of time. Further, promoting awareness around proper disposal of unused antimicrobials could mitigate their entry into the environment and help slow AMR. To be effective, core elements of antimicrobial stewardship must be embraced across all care settings, including hospitals, outpatient, low-resourced care settings, etc.


Involvement of a broad set of stakeholders is essential as no single actor or sector can effectively address the issue alone. AMR requires a collective effort and shared responsibility. This collaborative approach allows for the development of comprehensive strategies to prevent the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens. For example, governments can contribute to the solution by participating in surveillance networks and data sharing, and fostering ongoing access to medicine by supporting global supply chains.


Preserving the availability of a wide range of antibiotics is critical for ensuring doctors and patients have access to ideal treatment and avoid the suboptimal use of antibiotics. However, the sustained availability of some antibiotics is at risk due to unsustainable market dynamics. Many antibiotics are decades old and have been available as generics for years. In some cases, prices have dropped so low for these treatments that it is no longer viable for their manufacturers to continue making or selling them. With fewer companies making these drugs, there is a greater risk of shortages in the event of supply disruptions. To ensure continued access to a wide range of antimicrobials, we encourage policymakers and payers to foster a sustainable market for antibiotics, including older products.